Race has a long and complicated history in the United States. According to research by psychologists and others, prejudice and discrimination are still problems in American society. Even people who think they’re not racist may have unconscious thoughts that lead to subtle discriminatory behaviors. Fortunately, the research also shows that contact between people of different racial and ethnic backgrounds can reduce stereotyping and prejudice.
Adapted from APA's amicus brief on Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger.
- 'Not much has changed'
Segregation Ruled Unequal, and Therefore Unconstitutional
Psychologists Kenneth and Mamie Clark, PhD, demonstrated that segregation harmed Black children's self-images.
Physiological & Psychological Impact of Racism and Discrimination for African-Americans
How unique psycho-social and contextual factors, specifically the common and pervasive exposure to racism and discrimination, creates an additional daily stressor for African-Americans.
Dual Pathways to a Better America: Preventing Discrimination and Promoting Diversity
This is the executive summary of the final report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Reducing and Preventing Discrimination Against and Enhancing Benefits of Inclusion of People Whose Social Identities Are Marginalized in U.S. Society.
Ethnicity and Health in America Series
Raising public awareness concerning the varied health concerns of America’s people of color, while highlighting psychology's positive impact.
Multicultural Training Resources
Guidelines for training and research in ethnic minority communities, the UN's State of the World's Indigenous Peoples, a history of ethnic minorities in the U.S. and other educational resources.
Psychology and Racism
Information about the UN World Conference Against Racism and APA's Office on Ethnic Minority Affairs' National Conversation on Psychology and Racism.
Related APA Publications
APA Offices and Programs
Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs
The office seeks to increase scientific understanding of how psychology pertains to race, ethnicity and culture.