School Psychology Quarterly®

ISSN: 1045-3830
eISSN: 1939-1560
Published: quarterly, beginning in March
ISI Impact Factor: 1.00
Psychology - Educational : 28 of 53
This journal is a publication of APA Division 16 (School Psychology)

School Psychology Quarterly ® publishes empirical studies and literature reviews of the psychology of education and services for children in school settings, encompassing a full range of methodologies and orientations, including educational, cognitive, social, cognitive behavioral, preventive, cross-cultural, and developmental perspectives.

Focusing primarily on children, youth, and the adults who serve them, School Psychology Quarterly publishes research pertaining to the education of populations across the life span.

We welcome manuscripts from scholars throughout the world, including research from multi-site international projects and work that has the potential to be adapted to and implemented around the globe to address the needs of diverse populations, cultures, and communities.

Papers linking innovative empirical research with practice and public policy in the USA and elsewhere will also be considered.

School Psychology Quarterly® is a registered trademark of American Psychological Association
Editorial Board


Shane Jimerson
University of California, Santa Barbara

Senior Associate Editor of International Research

Thomas Oakland
University of Florida

Associate Editors

Scott Ardoin
University of Georgia

Matthew Mayer
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Wendy Reinke
University of Missouri

T. Chris Riley-Tillman
University of Missouri

Editorial Board

Craig Albers
University of Wisconsin–Madison

Seth Aldrich
Homer Central School District, New York

Mohammad Adnan Alghorani
United Arab Emirates University, United Arab Emirates

Jean Annan
Positively Psychology

George Bear
University of Delaware

Nicholas Benson
University of South Dakota

Jamilia Blake
Texas A & M University

Catherine Bradshaw
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Jacqueline Brown
University of Montana

Jacquelyn Buckley
Johns Hopkins University

Gary Canivez
Eastern Illinois University

Elise Cappella
New York University

Erin A. Chaparro
University of Oregon

Ted Christ
University of Minnesota

Robin Codding
University of Massachusetts Boston

Scott Decker
University of South Carolina

Bridget Dever
Lehigh University

Christine DiStefano
University of South Carolina

Nianbo Dong
University of Missouri

Erin Dowdy
University of California, Santa Barbara

Tanya Eckert
Syracuse University

Oliver Edwards
University of Central Florida

Katie Eklund
University of Arizona

Gregory Fabiano
University at Buffalo

Hank Fien
University of Oregon

Kevin Filter
Minnesota State University, Mankato

Jennifer Frank
Pennsylvania State University

Erica Frydenberg
The University of Melbourne, Australia

Hong Fu-Yuan
Taipei College of Maritime Technology

Patricia Graczyk
University of Illinois at Chicago

Scott Graves
Duquesne University

Chryse Hatzichristou
University of Athens, Greece

Keith Herman
University of Missouri

Jessica Hoffman
Northeastern University

Robin Hojnoski
Lehigh University

Francis Huang
University of Virginia

Diana Joyce-Beaulieu
University of Florida

Judith Kaufman
Fairleigh Dickinson University

Christopher Kearney
University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Milena Keller-Margulis
University of Houston

Eve Kikas
University of Tartu, Estonia

Stephen Kilgus
East Carolina University

Shui-fong Lam
The University of Hong Kong

Nancy Leech
University of Colorado Denver

Chilena Leon de Viloria
Universidad Catolica Andres Bello (Caracas - Venezuela)/ Asesores de Desarrollo Integral (Caracas - Venezuela)

Amanda Marcotte
University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Matthew Mayer
Rutgers University

Kent McIntosh
University of Oregon

Elizabeth McKenney
Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville

Beth Meisinger
University of Memphis

Sterett Mercer
University of British Columbia, Canada

Scott Methe
University of Massachusetts at Boston

Magen Mhaka-Mutepfa
University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe

Faith Miller
University of Connecticut

Bonnie Nastasi
Tulane University

Jason Nelson
University of Georgia

Markeda Newell
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

Amanda Nickerson
University at Buffalo, SUNY

Gilbert Parra
University of Southern Mississippi

Elise Pas
Johns Hopkins University

Michelle Perfect
University of Arizona

Eric Pierson
Ball State University

Matthew Quirk
University of California, Santa Barbara

Tara Raines
University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Linda Reddy
Rutgers University

Tyler Renshaw
Louisiana State University

Andrew (Andy) Roach
Arizona State University

Philip Rodkin
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Billie Jo Rodriguez
University of Texas at San Antonio

Don Saklofske
University of Western Ontario

Janay Sander
Ball State University

Paul Schutz
University of Texas at San Antonio

Sally Shaywitz
Yale University School of Medicine

Keith Smolkowski
Oregon Research Institute

Samuel Song
Seattle University

Karen Stoiber
University of Wisconsin--Milwaukee

Melissa Stormont
University of Missouri

Michael Sulkowski
University of Arizona

Eva Tideman
Lund University, Sweden

Amanda VanDerHeyden
Education Research and Consulting, Inc.

Mike Vanderwood
University of California-Riverside

Kimber Vannest
Texas A&M University

Ze Wang
University of Missouri

Yayoi Wantanabe
Hosei University, Japan

Solange Wechsler
Catholic University of Campinas, Brazil

Frank Worrell
University of California-Berkeley

Georgette Yetter
Oklahoma State University

Jamie Zibulsky
Fairleigh Dickinson University

Abstracting & Indexing

Abstracting and indexing services providing coverage of School Psychology Quarterly®

  • Academic Search Alumni Edition
  • Academic Search Complete
  • Academic Search Premier
  • Academic Source Premier
  • Contents Pages in Education
  • Current Abstracts
  • Current Contents/Social and Behavioral Sciences
  • E R I C (Education Resource Information Center)
  • EBSCOhost MegaFILE
  • Education Research Complete
  • Education Research Index
  • Educational Management Abstracts
  • Educational Research Abstracts Online
  • Expanded Academic ASAP
  • Family Index
  • InfoTrac OneFile
  • Ingenta
  • Journals@Ovid
  • Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts
  • Multicultural Education Abstracts
  • ProQuest Central
  • PsycINFO
  • PubMed
  • Research into Higher Education Abstracts
  • Social Sciences Citation Index
  • Sociology of Education Abstracts
  • Special Educational Needs Abstracts
  • Studies on Women and Gender Abstracts
  • SwetsWise All Titles
  • TOC Premier
Instructions to Authors

Prior to submission, please carefully read and follow the submission guidelines detailed below. Manuscripts that do not conform to the submission guidelines may be returned without review.

A Guide for New Authors describing specific publication procedures for APA journals is also available.


School Psychology Quarterly® is now using a software system to screen submitted content for similarity with other published content. The system compares each submitted manuscript against a database of 25+ million scholarly publications, as well as content appearing on the open web.

This allows APA to check submissions for potential overlap with material previously published in scholarly journals (e.g., lifted or republished material). A similarity report will be generated by the system and provided to the School Psychology Quarterly Editorial office for review immediately upon submission.

Starting on January 1, 2012, the completion of the Author Manuscript and Cover Letter Checklist (PDF, 42KB) signifying that authors have read this material and agree to adhere to the guidelines is required. The checklist should follow the cover letter as part of the submission.

Manuscripts that do not conform to the author guidelines may be returned without review.

Book or test reviews are not accepted for review or publication in School Psychology Quarterly.

Special issues will be considered for publication under unusual circumstances, where each manuscript proposed will be submitted to the peer review process. Inquiries regarding special issues or special topic sections should be sent directly to the Editor, Dr. Shane R. Jimerson.

Please submit manuscripts electronically, either using Microsoft Word (.doc) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) via the Manuscript Submission Portal.

Manuscript Submission Portal Entrance

If you encounter difficulties with submission, please email Mare Meadows, SPQ's Manuscript Coordinator.

General correspondence may be directed to the Editorial Office via email.

Masked Review

This journal uses a masked reviewing system for all submissions. The first page of the manuscript should omit the authors' names and affiliations but should include the title of the manuscript and the date it is submitted.

Footnotes containing information pertaining to the authors' identities or affiliations should not be included in the manuscript but may be provided after a manuscript is accepted.

Make every effort to see that the manuscript itself contains no clues to the authors' identities.

Keep a copy of the manuscript to guard against loss.

Length and Style of Manuscripts

Full-length manuscripts should not exceed 6,000 words total (including cover page, abstract, text, references, tables, and figures), with margins of at least 1 inch on all sides and a standard font (e.g., Times New Roman) of 12 points (no smaller). The References section should immediately follow a page break. The entire paper (text, references, tables, etc.) must be double spaced.

For manuscripts that exceed 6,000 words, authors must justify the extended length in their cover letter (e.g., reporting of multiple studies), and in no case should the paper exceed 9,000 words total.

For longer works, supplementary materials may by posted online and linked to the published article in the PsycARTICLES® database.

Examples of supplementary materials that may be posted online include

  • audio or video clips
  • oversized tables
  • lengthy appendixes
  • detailed intervention protocols
  • supplementary data sets

See Supplementing Your Article With Online Material for further information.

Notification of intent to use the supplementary materials option, and identification of supplemental material, should be identified in the author cover letter accompanying the submission.

Manuscripts are to comply with the APA Journal Article Reporting Standards (PDF, 98KB) (JARS; see American Psychologist, 2008, 63, 839–851 or Appendix in the APA Publication Manual).

Papers that do not conform to these guidelines and those that are not appropriate for publication in SPQ may be returned without full review.

Title of Manuscript

The title of a manuscript should be accurate, fully explanatory, and preferably no longer than 12 words. The title should reflect the content and population studied (e.g., "treatment of generalized anxiety disorders in adults"). See Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) for further details in creating an optimal title.

If the paper reports a randomized clinical trial (RCT), this should be indicated in the title. Note that JARS criteria must be used for reporting purposes.

Abstract and Keywords

Starting on January 1, 2012, all manuscripts published in the School Psychology Quarterly will include a structured abstract of up to 250 words.

For studies that report randomized clinical trials or meta-analyses, the abstract also must be consistent with the guidelines set forth by JARS or MARS (Meta-Analysis Reporting Standards) guidelines (PDF, 750KB), respectively.

Thus, in preparing a manuscript, please ensure that it is consistent with the guidelines stated below.

Please include an Abstract of up to 250 words, presented in paragraph form. The Abstract should be typed on a separate page (page 2 of the manuscript), and must include each of the following sections:

  • Objective: A brief statement of the purpose of the study
  • Method: A detailed summary of the participants (N, age, gender, ethnicity) as well as descriptions of the study design, measures (including names of measures), and procedures
  • Results: A detailed summary of the primary findings that clearly articulate comparison groups (if relevant), and that indicate significance or confidence intervals for the main findings
  • Conclusions: A description of the research and clinical implications of the findings

After the abstract, please supply up to five keywords.

Participants: Description and Informed Consent

The Method section of each empirical report must contain a detailed description of the study participants, including (but not limited to) the following: age, gender, ethnicity, SES, clinical diagnoses and comorbidities (as appropriate), and any other relevant demographics.

In the Discussion section of the manuscript, authors should discuss the diversity of their study samples and the generalizability of their findings.

The Method section also must include a statement describing how informed consent was obtained from the participants (or their parents/guardians) and indicate that the study was conducted in compliance with an appropriate Internal Review Board.


The Method section of empirical reports must contain a sufficiently detailed description of the measures used so that the reader understands the item content, scoring procedures, and total scores or subscales. Evidence of reliability and validity with similar populations should be provided.

Statistical Reporting of Clinical Significance

SPQ requires the statistical reporting of measures that convey clinical significance. Authors should report means and standard deviations for all continuous study variables and the effect sizes for the primary study findings. (If effect sizes are not available for a particular test, authors should convey this in their cover letter at the time of submission.)

SPQ also requires authors to report confidence intervals for any effect sizes involving principal outcomes.

In addition, when reporting the results of interventions, authors should include indicators of clinically significant change. Authors may use one of several approaches that have been recommended for capturing clinical significance, including (but not limited to) the reliable change index (i.e., whether the amount of change displayed by an individual is large enough to be meaningful); the extent to which dysfunctional individuals show movement into the functional distribution, or other normative comparisons.

Discussion of Implications for Practice

Manuscripts must include a discussion of the implications for practice of the study findings or analytic review. The Discussion section should contain a clear statement of the extent of practical application in the school context of the current assessment, prevention, or treatment methods.

The extent of application to practice may range from suggestions that the data are too preliminary to support widespread dissemination to descriptions of existing manuals available from the authors or archived materials that would allow full implementation at present.

Randomized Clinical Trials: Use of JARS Guidelines

SPQ requires the use of JARS guidelines for randomized clinical trials, consistent with the recommendations and policies established by APA's Publications and Communications Board. JARS offers a standard way to improve the quality of such reports, and to ensure that readers have the information necessary to evaluate the quality of a clinical trial.

Manuscripts that report randomized clinical trials are required to include a flow diagram of the progress through the phases of the trial. When a study is not fully consistent with JARS guidelines, the limitations should be acknowledged and discussed in the text of the manuscript.

For follow-up studies of previously published clinical trials, authors should submit a flow diagram of the progress through the phases of the trial and follow-up. The above checklist information should be completed to the extent possible, especially for the Results and Discussion sections of the manuscript.

Authors of RCTs should also describe procedures to assess for treatment fidelity (also known as treatment integrity), including both therapist adherence and competence. Where possible, results should be reported regarding the relationship between fidelity and outcome found in the investigation.

Meta-Analyses of Randomized Clinical Trials: Use of MARS Guidelines

SPQ requires the use of the APA MARS guidelines for meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials. MARS offers a standard way to improve the quality of such reports and to ensure that readers have the information necessary to evaluate the quality of a meta-analysis.

Manuscripts that report meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials are required to include a flow diagram of the progress through the stages of the meta-analysis. When a study is not fully consistent with MARS, the limitations should be acknowledged and discussed in the text of the manuscript.

MARS guidelines are included in the JARS guidelines (PDF, 98KB)

Nonrandomized Trials
For nonrandomized designs that often are used in public health and mental-health interventions, SPQ requires compliance with JARS.

Failure to comply with JARS or MARS can result in the return of manuscripts without review.

Manuscript Preparation

Prepare manuscripts according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition). Manuscripts may be copyedited for bias-free language (see Chapter 3 of the Publication Manual).

Review APA's Checklist for Manuscript Submission before submitting your article.

Double-space all copy. Other formatting instructions, as well as instructions on preparing tables, figures, references, metrics, and abstracts, appear in the Manual.

Below are additional instructions regarding the preparation of display equations, computer code, and tables.

Display Equations

We strongly encourage you to use MathType (third-party software) or Equation Editor 3.0 (built into pre-2007 versions of Word) to construct your equations, rather than the equation support that is built into Word 2007 and Word 2010. Equations composed with the built-in Word 2007/Word 2010 equation support are converted to low-resolution graphics when they enter the production process and must be rekeyed by the typesetter, which may introduce errors.

To construct your equations with MathType or Equation Editor 3.0:

  • Go to the Text section of the Insert tab and select Object.
  • Select MathType or Equation Editor 3.0 in the drop-down menu.

If you have an equation that has already been produced using Microsoft Word 2007 or 2010 and you have access to the full version of MathType 6.5 or later, you can convert this equation to MathType by clicking on MathType Insert Equation. Copy the equation from Microsoft Word and paste it into the MathType box. Verify that your equation is correct, click File, and then click Update. Your equation has now been inserted into your Word file as a MathType Equation.

Use Equation Editor 3.0 or MathType only for equations or for formulas that cannot be produced as Word text using the Times or Symbol font.

Computer Code

Because altering computer code in any way (e.g., indents, line spacing, line breaks, page breaks) during the typesetting process could alter its meaning, we treat computer code differently from the rest of your article in our production process. To that end, we request separate files for computer code.

In Online Supplemental Material
We request that runnable source code be included as supplemental material to the article. For more information, visit Supplementing Your Article With Online Material.

In the Text of the Article
If you would like to include code in the text of your published manuscript, please submit a separate file with your code exactly as you want it to appear, using Courier New font with a type size of 8 points. We will make an image of each segment of code in your article that exceeds 40 characters in length. (Shorter snippets of code that appear in text will be typeset in Courier New and run in with the rest of the text.) If an appendix contains a mix of code and explanatory text, please submit a file that contains the entire appendix, with the code keyed in 8-point Courier New.


Use Word's Insert Table function when you create tables. Using spaces or tabs in your table will create problems when the table is typeset and may result in errors.

Submitting Supplemental Materials

APA can place supplemental materials online, available via the published article in the PsycARTICLES® database. Please see Supplementing Your Article With Online Material for more details.


List references in alphabetical order. Each listed reference should be cited in text, and each text citation should be listed in the References section.

Examples of basic reference formats:

  • Journal Article:
    Hughes, G., Desantis, A., & Waszak, F. (2013). Mechanisms of intentional binding and sensory attenuation: The role of temporal prediction, temporal control, identity prediction, and motor prediction. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 133–151.
  • Authored Book:
    Rogers, T. T., & McClelland, J. L. (2004). Semantic cognition: A parallel distributed processing approach. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Chapter in an Edited Book:
    Gill, M. J., & Sypher, B. D. (2009). Workplace incivility and organizational trust. In P. Lutgen-Sandvik & B. D. Sypher (Eds.), Destructive organizational communication: Processes, consequences, and constructive ways of organizing (pp. 53–73). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.


Graphics files are welcome if supplied as Tiff or EPS files. Multipanel figures (i.e., figures with parts labeled a, b, c, d, etc.) should be assembled into one file.

The minimum line weight for line art is 0.5 point for optimal printing.

For more information about acceptable resolutions, fonts, sizing, and other figure issues, please see the general guidelines.

When possible, please place symbol legends below the figure instead of to the side.

APA offers authors the option to publish their figures online in color without the costs associated with print publication of color figures.

The same caption will appear on both the online (color) and print (black and white) versions. To ensure that the figure can be understood in both formats, authors should add alternative wording (e.g., "the red (dark gray) bars represent") as needed.

For authors who prefer their figures to be published in color both in print and online, original color figures can be printed in color at the editor's and publisher's discretion provided the author agrees to pay:

  • $900 for one figure
  • An additional $600 for the second figure
  • An additional $450 for each subsequent figure


Authors of accepted papers must obtain and provide to the editor on final acceptance all necessary permissions to reproduce in print and electronic form any copyrighted work, including test materials (or portions thereof), photographs, and other graphic images (including those used as stimuli in experiments).

On advice of counsel, APA may decline to publish any image whose copyright status is unknown.

Publication Policies

APA policy prohibits an author from submitting the same manuscript for concurrent consideration by two or more publications.

See also APA Journals® Internet Posting Guidelines.

APA requires authors to reveal any possible conflict of interest in the conduct and reporting of research (e.g., financial interests in a test or procedure, funding by pharmaceutical companies for drug research).

Authors of accepted manuscripts are required to transfer the copyright to APA.

Ethical Principles

It is a violation of APA Ethical Principles to publish "as original data, data that have been previously published" (Standard 8.13).

In addition, APA Ethical Principles specify that "after research results are published, psychologists do not withhold the data on which their conclusions are based from other competent professionals who seek to verify the substantive claims through reanalysis and who intend to use such data only for that purpose, provided that the confidentiality of the participants can be protected and unless legal rights concerning proprietary data preclude their release" (Standard 8.14).

APA expects authors to adhere to these standards. Specifically, APA expects authors to have their data available throughout the editorial review process and for at least 5 years after the date of publication.

Authors are required to state in writing that they have complied with APA ethical standards in the treatment of their sample, human or animal, or to describe the details of treatment.

The APA Ethics Office provides the full Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct electronically on its website in HTML, PDF, and Word format. You may also request a copy by emailing or calling the APA Ethics Office (202-336-5930). You may also read "Ethical Principles," December 1992, American Psychologist, Vol. 47, pp. 1597–1611.

Other Information

Special Issues
  • Perinatal Exposure in Later Psychological and Behavioral Disabilities

    Special issue of the APA journal School Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 22, No. 1, Spring 2007. Includes articles about relative risk of perinatal complications in common childhood disorders; low birth weight and cognitive outcomes; season of birth of students with emotional and behavioral disorders; risk of schizophrenia and depressive disorders in people exposed to prenatal rubella; and maternal stress and emotional status.