The Journal of Applied Psychology® emphasizes the publication of original investigations that contribute new knowledge and understanding to fields of applied psychology (other than clinical and applied experimental or human factors, which are more appropriate for other APA journals).

The journal primarily considers empirical and theoretical investigations that enhance understanding of cognitive, motivational, affective, and behavioral psychological phenomena in work and organizational settings, broadly defined.

Those psychological phenomena can be

  • at one or multiple levels — individuals, groups, organizations, or cultures;
  • in work settings such as business, education, training, health, service, government, or military institutions; and
  • in the public or private sector, for-profit or nonprofit organizations.

The journal publishes several types of articles, including:

  • Theoretically driven and rigorously conducted empirical investigations that extend conceptual understanding (original investigations or meta-analyses);
  • Theory development articles as well as integrative conceptual reviews that synthesize literature and create new theory of psychological phenomena that will stimulate novel research;
  • Rigorously conducted qualitative research on phenomena that are difficult to capture with quantitative methods, or on phenomena that warrant inductive theory building.

The journal accepts work that is conducted in the field or in the laboratory, where the data (quantitative or qualitative) are analyzed with elegant or simple statistics, so long as the data or theoretical synthesis advances understanding of psychological phenomena and human behavior that have practical implications.

A nonexhaustive sampling of topics appropriate for the Journal of Applied Psychology includes

  • individual differences in abilities, personality, and other characteristics;
  • testing and personnel selection;
  • performance measurement and management;
  • training, learning, and skill acquisition;
  • work motivation;
  • job attitudes, affect, and emotions;
  • leadership;
  • team development, processes, and effectiveness;
  • career development;
  • work–family interface;
  • work stress, health, and well-being;
  • positive and negative work behaviors;
  • diversity and cross-cultural differences in work behavior and attitudes;
  • technology and work systems;
  • expertise and knowledge management;
  • creativity, innovation, and adaptation;
  • organizational culture and climate;
  • and organizational design, change, and interventions.

The journal also encourages studies of human behavior in novel situations, and integration of basic psychological principles and theories with applied work and organizational phenomena. Specific topics of interest, however, change as organizations evolve and societal views of work change.

Journal of Applied Psychology® is a registered trademark of American Psychological Association
Editorial Board


Gilad Chen
University of Maryland

Associate Editors

Talya N. Bauer
Portland State University

Christopher M. Berry
Indiana University

Paul Bliese
University of South Carolina

D. Scott DeRue
University of Michigan

Michelle K. Duffy
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

Lillian T. Eby
University of Georgia

Jill Ellingson
Ohio State University

Vicente Gonzalez-Roma
University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain

Mark Griffin
University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia

Sabine Sonnentag
University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany

Michael C. Sturman
Cornell University

Mo Wang
University of Florida

Contributing Editors

Herman Aguinis
Indiana University

Ramon J. Aldag
University of Wisconsin–Madison

David G. Allen
Rutgers University

Natalie J. Allen
University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

Tammy D. Allen
University of South Florida

Maureen L. Ambrose
University of Central Florida

Neil Anderson
Brunel University West London, Uxbridge, United Kingdom

Winfred Arthur, Jr.
Texas A&M University

Samuel Aryee
King's College London, United Kingdom

Neal M. Ashkanasy
University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Bruce Avolio
University of Washington

Daniel Bachrach
University of Alabama

Markus Baer
Washington University in St. Louis

Christopher M. Barnes
University of Washington

Janet Barnes-Farrell
University of Connecticut

Murray Barrick
Texas A&M University

Kathryn M. Bartol
University of Maryland

Suzanne T. Bell
DePaul University

Nathan Bennett
Georgia State University

Jennifer L. Berdahl
University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Mindy Bergman
Texas A&M University

Mark N. Bing
University of Mississippi

John F. Binning
Illinois State University and The DeGarmo Group, Bloomington, IL

Mark Bolino
University of Oklahoma

John W. Boudreau
University of Southern California

James Breaugh
University of Missouri, St. Louis

Jeanne M. Brett
Northwestern University

Douglas Brown
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Kenneth G. Brown
University of Iowa

Nathan T. Carter
University of Georgia

Wendy J. Casper
University of Texas, Arlington

Chu-Hsiang (Daisy) Chang
Michigan State University

Georgia T. Chao
Michigan State University

Prithviraj Chattopadhyay
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Dan S. Chiaburu
Texas A&M University

Jaepil Choi
Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Korea

Michael S. Cole
Texas Christian University

Adrienne Colella
Tulane University

Jason A. Colquitt
University of Georgia

Donald E. Conlon
Michigan State University

Patrick Converse
Florida Institute of Technology

Jose M. Cortina
George Mason University

Lilia M. Cortina
University of Michigan

Eean Crawford
University of Iowa

Jeremy F. Dawson
University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom

David V. Day
University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia

Eric A. Day
University of Oklahoma

Angelo DeNisi
Tulane University

Rellie Derfler-Rozin
University of Maryland

James Diefendorff
University of Akron

Nikolaos Dimotakis
Georgia State University

Brian R. Dineen
Purdue University

Dennis Doverspike
University of Akron

Lisa Dragoni
Wake Forest University

James E. Driskell
Florida Maxima Corporation

Bryan D. Edwards
Oklahoma State University

Jeffrey R. Edwards
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Mark G. Ehrhart
San Diego State University

Hillary Anger Elfenbein
Washington University in St. Louis

Aleksander P.J. Ellis
University of Arizona

Berrin Erdogan
Portland State University

Crystal I. C. Farh
Michigan State University

Daniel C. Feldman
University of Georgia

D. Lance Ferris
Pennsylvania State University

Cynthia D. Fisher
Bond University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia

Michael Frese
National University of Singapore, Singapore and Leuphana University of Lueneburg, Lueneburg, Germany

Yitzhak Fried
Syracuse University

Ingrid S. Fulmer
Rutgers University

Allison S. Gabriel
University of Arizona

Daniel C. Ganster
Colorado State University

Mark B. Gavin
West Virginia University

Michelle Gelfand
University of Maryland

Ian R. Gellatly
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Jennifer M. George
Rice University

Barry Gerhart
University of Wisconsin–Madison

Stephen Gilliland
University of Arizona

Barry M. Goldman
University of Arizona

Yaping Gong
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Jodi S. Goodman
West Virginia University

Alicia Grandey
Pennsylvania State University

Jeffrey H. Greenhaus
Drexel University

Gary J. Greguras
Singapore Management University, Singapore

Markus Groth
University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Nina Gupta
University of Arkansas

Jonathon R. B. Halbesleben
University of Alabama

Leslie B. Hammer
Portland State University

Sean T. Hannah
Wake Forest University

Samantha D. Hansen
University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

David A. Harrison
University of Texas, Austin

Kate Hattrup
San Diego State University

Michelle R. Hebl
Rice University

Madeline Heilman
New York University

M. Sandy Hershcovis
University of Manitoba, Winnepeg, Manitoba, Canada

Scott Highhouse
Bowling Green State University

Nathan J. Hiller
Florida International University

John R. Hollenbeck
Michigan State University

Peter Hom
Arizona State University

Astrid C. Homan
University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Michael Horvath
Cleveland State University

Leaetta M. Hough
Dunnette Group, Ltd., St. Paul, MN

Ute R. Hulsheger
Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands

Stephen E. Humphrey
Pennsylvania State University

Christine L. Jackson
Purdue University

Gary Johns
Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Michael D. Johnson
University of Washington

Russell E. Johnson
Michigan State University

Dana L. Joseph
University of Central Florida

K. Michele Kacmar
Texas State University

John D. Kammeyer-Mueller
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

Seth Kaplan
George Mason University

Nina Keith
Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany

Eden B. King
George Mason University

Bradley L. Kirkman
North Carolina State University

Ute-Christine Klehe
Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany

Ryan L. Klinger
Old Dominion University

M. Audrey Korsgaard
University of South Carolina

Kurt Kraiger
Colorado State University

Maria Kraimer
University of Iowa

David A. Kravitz
George Mason University

Amy Kristof-Brown
University of Iowa

Klodiana Lanaj
University of Florida

Ronald S. Landis
Illinois Institute of Technology

Jonas W. B. Lang
Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

Dora C. Lau
Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong

Keith Leavitt
Oregon State University

James M. LeBreton
Pennsylvania State University

Cynthia Lee
Northeastern University

Thomas William Lee
University of Washington

Dave P. Lepak
Rutgers University

Jeff LePine
Arizona State University

Hannes Leroy
Cornell University

Lisa M. Leslie
New York University

Edward L. Levine
University of South Florida

Paul E. Levy
University of Akron

Hui Liao
University of Maryland

Robert C. Liden
University of Illinois, Chicago

Filip Lievens
Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

Songqi Liu
Pennsylvania State University

Debra A. Major
Old Dominion University

Suzanne S Masterson
University of Cincinnati

John Mathieu
University of Connecticut

Daniel J. McAllister
National University of Singapore, Singapore

Julie McCarthy
University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Lynn A. McFarland
University of South Carolina

Patrick F. McKay
Rutgers University

Adam W. Meade
North Carolina State University

Marie S. Mitchell
University of Georgia

Frederick Morgeson
Michigan State University

Scott B. Morris
Illinois Institute of Technology

Elizabeth W. Morrison
New York University

Jennifer Mueller
University of San Diego

Kevin R. Murphy
Colorado State University

Jennifer D. Nahrgang
Arizona State University

Andrew Neal
University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia

Daniel A. Newman
University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign

Thomas W.H. Ng
University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong

Bernard A. Nijstad
University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands

Raymond A. Noe
Ohio State University

Anthony J. Nyberg
University of South Carolina

In-Sue Oh
Temple University

Anne O'Leary-Kelly
University of Arkansas

Deniz S. Ones
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

Jane O'Reilly
University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Dennis Organ
Indiana University

Cheri Ostroff
University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

Fred Oswald
Rice University

Matthew J. Pearsall
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Jill E. Perry-Smith
Emory University

Randall S. Peterson
London Business School, London, United Kingdom

Robert E. Ployhart
University of South Carolina

Philip M. Podsakoff
University of Florida

Christopher Porter
Indiana University

Belle Rose Ragins
University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee

Jana Raver
Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

Christian J. Resick
Drexel University

Hettie A. Richardson
Texas Christian University

Jessica B. Rodell
University of Georgia

Steven Rogelberg
University of North Carolina at Charlotte

Christopher C. Rosen
University of Arkansas

Deborah Rupp
Purdue University

Ann Marie Ryan
Michigan State University

Paul R. Sackett
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

Juan I. Sanchez
Florida International University

John Schaubroeck
Michigan State University

Charles A. Scherbaum
Baruch College, City University of New York

Deidra J. Schleicher
Texas A&M University

Aaron M. Schmidt
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

Neal Schmitt
Michigan State University

Benjamin Schneider
CEB Workforce Surveys & Analytics, Rolling Meadows, IL

Lisa Schurer Lambert
Georgia State University

Scott E. Seibert
University of Iowa

Margaret A. Shaffer
University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee

Pri Pradhan Shah
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

Jason D. Shaw
Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Junqi Shi
Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

Shung Jae Shin
Portland State University

Abbie J. Shipp
Texas Christian University

Lynn M. Shore
Colorado State University

Hock-Peng Sin
Florida International University

Evan Sinar
Development Dimensions International, Bridgeville, PA

Traci Sitzmann
University of Colorado Denver

Jerel Slaughter
University of Arizona

Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch
University of Central Florida

James W. Smither
La Salle University

Paul Spector
University of South Florida

Alex D. Stajkovic
University of Wisconsin–Madison

Stephen Stark
University of South Florida

Greg Stewart
University of Iowa

Lorne Sulsky
Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada

Riki Takeuchi
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Hwee Hoon Tan
Singapore Management University, Singapore

Subrahmaniam Tangirala
University of Maryland

Louis Tay
Purdue University

Ann E. Tenbrunsel
University of Notre Dame

Lois Tetrick
George Mason University

Stefan Thau
INSEAD, Singapore

Nancy Tippins
CEB Valtera, Greenville, SC

Donald M. Truxillo
Portland State University

Daniel Turban
University of Missouri

Nick Turner
University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

Jeffrey B. Vancouver
Ohio University

Don Vandewalle
Southern Methodist University

Linn Van Dyne
Michigan State University

Edwin A.J. van Hooft
University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Chad H. Van Iddekinge
Florida State University

Daan van Knippenberg
Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands

Vijaya Venkataramani
University of Maryland

David Waldman
Arizona State University

Fred O. Walumbwa
Florida International University

Connie Wanberg
University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

Julie Holliday Wayne
Wake Forest University

Sandy J. Wayne
University of Illinois at Chicago

Michael Wesson
Texas A&M University

Steffanie Wilk
Ohio State University

Kin Fai Ellick Wong
Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Gary Yukl
State University of New York, Albany

Yujie Zhan
Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Zhen Zhang
Arizona State University

Jing Zhou
Rice University

Michael J. Zickar
Bowling Green State University

Jonathan C. Ziegert
Drexel University

Editorial Assistant

Jennifer Wood

Abstracting & Indexing

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Manuscript Submission

Prior to submission, please carefully read and follow the submission guidelines detailed below. Manuscripts that do not conform to the submission guidelines may be returned without review.


The completion of a submission checklist that signifies that authors have read this material and agree to adhere to the guidelines is required as part of the submission upload process (authors can find this checklist in the "Additional Information" section). If you need to include a data transparency appendix, please continue to put this as the last page of your manuscript file. Revisions should also include the data transparency appendix, and include any relevant changes that may need to be reflected in the appendix.

Submit manuscripts electronically through the Manuscript Submission Portal. Files can be sent in Microsoft Word, in WordPerfect, or as a PDF file. The version sent should be consistent with the complete APA-style printed version.

Manuscript Submission Portal Entrance

Gilad Chen, Editor
Robert H. Smith School of Business
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742-1815

General correspondence may be directed to the Editor's Office.

In addition to addresses and phone numbers, please supply email addresses and fax numbers, if available, for potential use by the editorial office and later by the production office.

Keep a copy of the manuscript to guard against loss.

Manuscripts submitted for publication consideration in the Journal of Applied Psychology are evaluated according to the following criteria:

  • degree to which the manuscript fits the mission of the journal;
  • significance of the theoretical, practical and/or methodological contributions;
  • quality of the literature review;
  • articulation and explication of the conceptual rationale, constructs, and psychological processes;
  • rigor of the design and execution of the study;
  • appropriateness of the analysis and interpretation of the results;
  • discussion of implications for theory, research, and application; and
  • clarity of presentation.

Manuscripts should be logically organized and clearly written in concise and unambiguous language. The goal of APA primary journals is to publish useful information that is accurate and clear.

Two primary types of articles will be published:

  • Feature Articles, which are full-length articles that focus on a theoretically driven empirical contribution (all research strategies and methods, quantitative and qualitative, are considered) or on a theoretical contribution that can shape future research in applied psychology, and
  • Research Reports, which are original in their empirical or theoretical contribution but smaller or narrower in scope than a Feature Article. Research Reports can also be useful (i.e., constructive) replications that contribute to the literature.

Authors should refer to recent issues of the journal for approximate length of Feature Articles and Research Reports. (Total manuscript pages divided by three provides an estimate of total printed pages.)

Research Reports are limited to no more than 17 manuscript pages of text proper; these limits do not include the title page, abstract, references, tables, or figures. Different printers, fonts, spacing, margins, and so forth can substantially alter the amount of text that can be fit on a page.

In determining the length limits of Research Reports, authors should count 25 lines of 12-point text with 1-inch margins as the equivalent of one page.

The review process is the same for Feature Articles and Research Reports — the two types of manuscripts differ only in length, commensurate to different scope of intended contribution. Authors can indicate whether their manuscript is to be considered as a Feature Article or a Research Report at the time of submission. However, the Action Editor (with input from the review team) may suggest that a Feature Article submission be pared down to Research Report length.

The journal also has a history of publishing Monographs on occasion. Monographs are substantial and significant contributions (as determined by the editorial team). As such, monographs are relatively rare.

In addition, the journal occasionally publishes Commentaries (see Kozlowski, S.W.J. (2011). Comment policy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96 (2), 231–232) (PDF, 36KB) and now also considers proposals for Integrative Conceptual Reviews.

Masked Review Policy

The journal will accept submissions in masked review format only.

Author names and affiliations should appear in the cover letter but not anywhere on the manuscript. Authors should make every reasonable effort to see that the manuscript itself contains no clues to their identities. Manuscripts not in masked format will be returned to authors for revision prior to being reviewed.

Please ensure that the final version for production includes a byline and full author note for typesetting.

Data Transparency Policy

APA requires that all data in their published articles be an original use. Along with determining the appropriateness of any submission, the editorial team (editor and reviewers) also have a role in determining what constitutes "original use." Key to this determination is the extent to which reported data and results serve to promote cumulative knowledge and insight to the literature.

Any previous, concurrent, or near future use of data reported in a submitted manuscript must be brought to the editorial team's attention (i.e., any paper(s) previously published, in press, or currently under review, as well as any paper(s) that foreseeably will be under review before an editorial decision is made on the current submitted manuscript).

In order to preserve masked review, authors should include a data transparency appendix in the manuscript which details how and where the data collected was (or potentially will soon be) used. Authors may also put in any other clarifying information they wish, as long as it can be done fairly anonymously. Any identifying information, such as authors' names or titles of journal articles that the authors wish to share can be included in the cover letter where only the editorial staff will see it.

When providing information in the paper itself and/or in the appendix, authors should ensure there is enough detail for reviewers to assess whether data presented constitute original use and unique knowledge and insights.

For more information on APA's data policies, please see Section 1.09, "Duplicate and Piecemeal Publication of Data," APA Publications Manual 6th Edition, p. 13–15.

Data Transparency Appendix Examples

Manuscript Preparation

Prepare manuscripts according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition). Manuscripts may be copyedited for bias-free language (see Chapter 3 of the Publication Manual).

Review APA's Checklist for Manuscript Submission before submitting your article.

Double-space all copy. Other formatting instructions, as well as instructions on preparing tables, figures, references, metrics, and abstracts, appear in the Manual.

Below are additional instructions regarding the preparation of display equations, computer code, and tables.

Display Equations

We strongly encourage you to use MathType (third-party software) or Equation Editor 3.0 (built into pre-2007 versions of Word) to construct your equations, rather than the equation support that is built into Word 2007 and Word 2010. Equations composed with the built-in Word 2007/Word 2010 equation support are converted to low-resolution graphics when they enter the production process and must be rekeyed by the typesetter, which may introduce errors.

To construct your equations with MathType or Equation Editor 3.0:

  • Go to the Text section of the Insert tab and select Object.
  • Select MathType or Equation Editor 3.0 in the drop-down menu.

If you have an equation that has already been produced using Microsoft Word 2007 or 2010 and you have access to the full version of MathType 6.5 or later, you can convert this equation to MathType by clicking on MathType Insert Equation. Copy the equation from Microsoft Word and paste it into the MathType box. Verify that your equation is correct, click File, and then click Update. Your equation has now been inserted into your Word file as a MathType Equation.

Use Equation Editor 3.0 or MathType only for equations or for formulas that cannot be produced as Word text using the Times or Symbol font.

Computer Code

Because altering computer code in any way (e.g., indents, line spacing, line breaks, page breaks) during the typesetting process could alter its meaning, we treat computer code differently from the rest of your article in our production process. To that end, we request separate files for computer code.

In Online Supplemental Material
We request that runnable source code be included as supplemental material to the article. For more information, visit Supplementing Your Article With Online Material.

In the Text of the Article
If you would like to include code in the text of your published manuscript, please submit a separate file with your code exactly as you want it to appear, using Courier New font with a type size of 8 points. We will make an image of each segment of code in your article that exceeds 40 characters in length. (Shorter snippets of code that appear in text will be typeset in Courier New and run in with the rest of the text.) If an appendix contains a mix of code and explanatory text, please submit a file that contains the entire appendix, with the code keyed in 8-point Courier New.


Use Word's Insert Table function when you create tables. Using spaces or tabs in your table will create problems when the table is typeset and may result in errors.

Submitting Supplemental Materials

APA can place supplemental materials online, available via the published article in the PsycARTICLES® database. Please see Supplementing Your Article With Online Material for more details.

Abstract and Keywords

All manuscripts must include an abstract containing a maximum of 250 words typed on a separate page. After the abstract, please supply up to five keywords or brief phrases.


List references in alphabetical order. Each listed reference should be cited in text, and each text citation should be listed in the References section.

Examples of basic reference formats:

  • Journal Article:
    Hughes, G., Desantis, A., & Waszak, F. (2013). Mechanisms of intentional binding and sensory attenuation: The role of temporal prediction, temporal control, identity prediction, and motor prediction. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 133–151.
  • Authored Book:
    Rogers, T. T., & McClelland, J. L. (2004). Semantic cognition: A parallel distributed processing approach. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Chapter in an Edited Book:
    Gill, M. J., & Sypher, B. D. (2009). Workplace incivility and organizational trust. In P. Lutgen-Sandvik & B. D. Sypher (Eds.), Destructive organizational communication: Processes, consequences, and constructive ways of organizing (pp. 53–73). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.


Graphics files are welcome if supplied as Tiff or EPS files. Multipanel figures (i.e., figures with parts labeled a, b, c, d, etc.) should be assembled into one file.

The minimum line weight for line art is 0.5 point for optimal printing.

For more information about acceptable resolutions, fonts, sizing, and other figure issues, please see the general guidelines.

When possible, please place symbol legends below the figure instead of to the side.

APA offers authors the option to publish their figures online in color without the costs associated with print publication of color figures.

The same caption will appear on both the online (color) and print (black and white) versions. To ensure that the figure can be understood in both formats, authors should add alternative wording (e.g., "the red (dark gray) bars represent") as needed.

For authors who prefer their figures to be published in color both in print and online, original color figures can be printed in color at the editor's and publisher's discretion provided the author agrees to pay:

  • $900 for one figure
  • An additional $600 for the second figure
  • An additional $450 for each subsequent figure


Authors of accepted papers must obtain and provide to the editor on final acceptance all necessary permissions to reproduce in print and electronic form any copyrighted work, including test materials (or portions thereof), photographs, and other graphic images (including those used as stimuli in experiments).

On advice of counsel, APA may decline to publish any image whose copyright status is unknown.

Publication Policies

APA policy prohibits an author from submitting the same manuscript for concurrent consideration by two or more publications.

See also APA Journals® Internet Posting Guidelines.

APA requires authors to reveal any possible conflict of interest in the conduct and reporting of research (e.g., financial interests in a test or procedure, funding by pharmaceutical companies for drug research).

Authors of accepted manuscripts are required to transfer the copyright to APA.

Ethical Principles

It is a violation of APA Ethical Principles to publish "as original data, data that have been previously published" (Standard 8.13).

In addition, APA Ethical Principles specify that "after research results are published, psychologists do not withhold the data on which their conclusions are based from other competent professionals who seek to verify the substantive claims through reanalysis and who intend to use such data only for that purpose, provided that the confidentiality of the participants can be protected and unless legal rights concerning proprietary data preclude their release" (Standard 8.14).

APA expects authors to adhere to these standards. Specifically, APA expects authors to have their data available throughout the editorial review process and for at least 5 years after the date of publication.

Authors are required to state in writing that they have complied with APA ethical standards in the treatment of their sample, human or animal, or to describe the details of treatment.

The APA Ethics Office provides the full Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct electronically on its website in HTML, PDF, and Word format. You may also request a copy by emailing or calling the APA Ethics Office (202-336-5930). You may also read "Ethical Principles," December 1992, American Psychologist, Vol. 47, pp. 1597–1611.

Other Information