Aging and Cognition: Research Methodologies and Empirical Advances
For individuals in the U.S. & U.S. territories
As the world's population ages, the study of aging and its effects on cognition becomes increasingly important. Aging and Cognition takes an interdisciplinary look at cognitive aging—how it happens and how to study it.
The first part of the book explores methods for measuring cognitive change, including how to study cohort effects. How can we account for differences in cognitive performance from one cohort to another? Should we assume factor invariance across cohorts or time? These issues are treated in a context of new and existing empirical research, making the discussion of methodological issues more concrete and accessible.
The second part of the book explores the social and psychological factors associated with cognitive aging. For example, to what extent do socioeconomic status, optimism, and personal sense of control affect aging? Is the controversial "use it or lose it" theory of cognition valid?
Finally, a brief concluding section explores how to use research findings to improve the everyday functioning of adults—a challenging task because everyday functioning relies on complex cognitive tasks, while most cognitive research measures only basic cognitive tasks. The chapter in this final section uses medication adherence as an example for deriving real-world solutions from cognitive research results.
With its emphasis on social and contextual factors that influence aging, this book showcases both substantive and methodological developments in the field. It will be useful to everyone who studies aging and cognition.
—Hayden B. Bosworth and Christopher Hertzog
I. Methodological Issues in the Study of Developmental Change
History, Cohorts, and Patterns of Cognitive Aging
—Duane F. Alwin
Factor Invariance, Measurement, and Studying Development Over the Life Span
—John R. Nesselroade and Ryne Estabrook
A Multilevel Factor Analysis Perspective on Intellectual Development in Old Age
—Daniel Zimprich and Mike Martin
The Search for Structure: The Temperamental Character of the Temperament and Character Inventory
—Scott B. Maitland, Lars Nyberg, Lars Bäckman, Lars-Gorän Nilsson, and Rolf Adolfsson
Convergence Between Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies: Cohort Matters
—Elizabeth M. Zelinski, Robert F. Kennison, Amber Watts, and Kayan L. Lewis
II. Cognitive, Social, and Psychological Development in Adulthood
How Those Who Have, Thrive: Mechanisms Underlying the Well-Being of the Advantaged in Later Life
—Carmi J. Schooler and Leslie J. Caplan
The Rise and Fall of Control Beliefs in Adulthood: Cognitive and Biopsychosocial Antecedents and Consequences of Stability and Change Over 9 Years
—Margie Lachman, Christopher B. Rosnick, and Christina Röcke
Use It or Lose It: An Old Hypothesis, New Evidence, and an Ongoing Controversy
Dynamic Emotion–Cognition Interactions in Adult Development: Arousal, Stress, and the Processing of Affect
—Gisela Labouvie-Vief, Daniel Grühn, and Harold Mouras
The Way We Were: Perceptions of Past Memory Change in Older Adults
—David F. Hultsch, Allison A. M. Bielak, Carolyn B. Crow, and Roger A. Dixon
III. Applying Research Findings
The Role of Cognitive Ability in Everyday Functioning: Medication Adherence as an Example
—Hayden B. Bosworth and Brian J. Ayotte
About the Editors
Hayden B. Bosworth, PhD, is a gerontologist and health services researcher. He is the associate director of the Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care at the Durham VA Medical Center in North Carolina. At Duke University Medical Center, he is a research professor in the Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine; a research professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; and a research professor in the School of Nursing. He is also an adjunct professor of health policy and administration in the School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
He received his master's and doctoral degrees from the Pennsylvania State University in 1994 and 1996, respectively, under the mentorship of K. Warner Schaie.
Dr. Bosworth's research focus has been on developing interventions to improve health behaviors and treatment adherence to improve patient outcomes among those with chronic diseases. He has published over 145 peer-reviewed articles that have examined the effects of patient characteristics and social environment on chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and hypertension.
Funding for his work has been provided by various sources, including the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the American Heart Association, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Kate B. Reynolds Foundation.
He is the recipient of various awards, including the Gerontological Society of America's Margaret M. Baltes Early Career Award in Behavioral and Social Gerontology in recognition of outstanding early career contributions in behavioral and social gerontology.
Dr. Bosworth is a fellow of the Gerontological Society of America and of the American Psychological Association's Division 20 (Adult Development and Aging) and Division 38 (Health Psychology).
Christopher Hertzog, PhD, is a professor of psychology at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He received his doctoral degree in 1979 from the University of Southern California, where he worked with K. Warner Schaie on the Seattle Longitudinal Study. After a 2-year postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Washington, under the supervision of Earl Hunt, he was an assistant professor of human development at the Pennsylvania State University until 1985, when he moved to Georgia Tech.
Dr. Hertzog's research interests focus on individual differences in adult cognitive development. He has conducted longitudinal research on adult developmental change using multivariate statistical models and has participated in studies grounded in experimental cognitive psychology as a basis for understanding effects of aging on memory, skill acquisition, and intelligence. His recent work has focused in large part on adults' metacognition and strategic self-regulation in cognitive tasks.
Dr. Hertzog is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA) and past-president of APA's Division 20 (Adult Development and Aging).