Circumplex Models of Personality and Emotions
For the past few decades, the major approach to studying personality and emotion has been the so-called "five-factor" model. But at the same time, a growing number of researchers have been exploring a radical alternative model: the circumplex.
The circumplex model focuses on determining how traits and emotions are structurally similar, and its underlying assumption is that a relatively seamless circular odering, or circumplex, is an economical description of the relations among traits and emotions. This new book, edited by two of the best-known proponents of the circumplex model, explores this model and shows its application to a variety of research and treatment settings: personality disorders, family therapy, occupational choice, and test construction. The circumplex model allows a broader view of personality and of the interpersonal relationships integral to understanding just what makes a personality the way it is.
Introduction: Circumplex Models of Personality and Emotions
—Robert Plutchik and Hope R. Conte
I. The Circumplex in Relation to Personality
- The Circumplex as a General Model of the Structure of Emotions and Personality
- The Circumplex Model Applied to Interpersonal Behavior, Affect, and Psychotic Syndromes
- When Is a Circumplex an "Interpersonal Circumplex"? The Case of Supportive Actions
—Jerry S. Wiggins and Krista K. Trobst
- Studying Personality Traits: The Circular Way
—Michael B. Gurtman
- Two at a Time Is Better Than One at a Time: Exploiting the Horizontal Aspects of Factor Representations
—Clarence C. McCormick and Lewis R. Goldberg
- Integration of Configurational and Factorial Models for Family Relationships and Child Behavior
—Earl S. Schaefer
- Personality Set Within an Octagonal Model of Relating
- Circular Structure of Vocational Interests
—Terence J. G. Tracey and James B. Rounds
II. The Circumplex in Relation to Emotions
- How Shall An Emotion Be Called?
—James A. Russell
- A Circumplex Inventory of Impact Messages: An Operational Bridge Between Emotion and Interpersonal Behavior
—Donald J. Kiesler, James A. Schmidt, and Christopher C. Wagner
- Theoretical and Methodological Elaborations of the Circumplex Model of Personality Traits and Emotions
—Gene A. Fisher
- The Interpersonal Circle and the Emotional Undercurrents of Human Sociability
III. Applications of the Circumplex Model to Clinical Issues
- Personality Disorders and the Interpersonal Circumplex
—Thomas A. Widiger and Steven Hagemoser
- Evaluating a Circumplex Model of Personality Disorders With Structural Equation Modeling
—David M. Romney and John M. Bynner
- The Circumplex Structure of Interpersonal Problems
—Leonard M. Horowitz, D. Christopher Dryer, and Elena N. Krasnoperova
- The Circumplex in Psychotherapy Research
—William P. Henry
- The Interpersonal Circumplex as a Structural Model in Clinical Research: Examples From Group Psychotherapy, Interpersonal Problems, and Personality Disorders
- Interpersonal Assessment and Therapy of Eating Disorders: A Clinical Application of a Circumplex Model
—James K. Madison
Epilogue: The Future of the Circumplex
—Robert Plutchik and Hope R. Conte
About the Editors
Robert Plutchik, PhD, is Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry and Psychology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and Associate Director of the Psychiatry Department at the Bronx Municipal Hospital Center. Earlier in his career he was involved in psychiatric research at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Subsequently, he was Director of Program Development and Clinical Research at the Bronx Psychiatric Center. He also spent several years as a Fellow at the National Institute of Mental Health conducting brain stimulation research in primates. He has taught at Columbia, Yeshiva, Hofstra and Long Island Universities as well as at SUNY Purchase and the New School for Social Research. His main areas of current interest include the study of emotions, psychotherapy, suicide and violence.
Dr. Plutchik has served as a consultant to the National Institute of Mental Health and to AT&T, as well as other agencies and companies. He has lectured widely at medical schools and universities throughout the United States and in a number of foreign countries, including New Zealand, China, and Japan. He is author or co-author of over 250 publications, has written five books and coedited six books. His work on emotion is internationally recognized. He has been invited to contribute articles on emotion to the World Book Encyclopedia, the Academic American Encyclopedia, Blackwell's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Psychology, and the International Encyclopedia of Neurology, Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis and Psychology. He is the author of The Emotions: Facts, Theories and a New Model (Random House, 1962), Foundations of Experimental Research (Harper and Row, 1968), Emotion: A Psychoevolutionary Synthesis (Harper and Row, 1980), and The Psychology and Biology of Emotion (HarperCollins, 1994).
Hope R. Conte, PhD, is Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Director of the Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Research Fellowship Program of the Psychiatry Department at the Bronx Municipal Hospital Center. She is the author or coauthor of over 100 publications in peer reviewed journals, with major interests in the areas of personality and psychotherapy research and psychometrics. Some of her articles that are considered seminal include the following: "A Circumplex Model for Interpersonal Personality Traits," published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology in 1981, "Combined Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy in the Treatment of Depression: A Systematic Analysis of the Evidence," 1986, in the Archives of General Psychiatry; and "Interrelations Among Ego Functions and Personality Traits: Their Relation to Psychotherapy Outcome," published in the American Journal of Psychotherapy in 1991.
Most recently, Dr. Conte has contributed two chapters to volumes dealing with ego defenses that describe recent work with a self-report scale for the measurement of ego defense mechanisms that she helped to develop. She is senior editor of a book now in press titled Ego Defenses Theory and Measurement.