The Glass Ceiling in the 21st Century: Understanding Barriers to Gender Equality
Since the term "glass ceiling" was first coined in 1984, women have made great progress in terms of leadership equality with men in the workplace. Despite this, women are still under-represented in the upper echelons of organizations.
In this volume, leading psychologists from the United States, Canada, and the European Union go beyond social commentary, anecdotal evidence and raw statistics to explain and offer remedies for this continued inequality, based on empirical evidence. Subtle barriers to women's advancement to and success in leadership positions are a major focus, such as women being recruited for upper-level positions that are associated with a high risk of failure or women managers being stereotyped as either competent or warm (but not both). Solutions that can be practically implemented are offered at different levels of analysis, including organizational (e.g., affirmative action), work group (e.g., diversity management), and individual (e.g., cross-cultural networking).
Other obstacles associated with breaking through the glass ceiling include more nuanced forms of gender stereotyping, tokenism, and sexual harassment. The somewhat surprising effects of affirmative action and family friendly policies are also examined. As this volume explores women's current experiences in the workplace, a critical emphasis is making visible what women encounter as their career trajectory ascends and suggesting how they can enhance their career choices and thrive in the hard-won positions they attain.