Gender and Occupational Outcomes: Longitudinal Assessment of Individual, Social, and Cultural Influences
Despite concentrated research and important legislative milestones on gender equality over the past quarter-century, gender-related disparities in science, technology, and math careers persist into the 21st century. This persistence sustains a troubling state of gender inequity in which women are not sharing in the salary and status advantages attached to scientific and technical careers. In this landmark volume, editors Watt and Eccles, both well known for their research contributions in this area, compile a rich source of longitudinal analysis that places the problem in context.
Experts from different countries in the fields of developmental and social psychology, human development, biology, education, and sociology draw on multi-wave longitudinal data on the gender-related variables that influence occupational outcomes. Together, the studies bring a variety of perspectives, theoretical models, and cultural settings to bear on the book's central questions. Further, the book examines the implications these results have for policy, suggesting which circumstances may be most conducive to promoting a more comprehensive and realistic understanding of gender differences in career choice and persistence. Detailed explanations of study design will serve as a resource for future researchers in this area.
List of Tables and Figures
Gender and Occupational Outcomes: An Introduction
—Helen M. G. Watt
I. Mathematics as the Critical Filter?
- Gender, Mathematics Achievement, and the Educational and Occupational Aspirations of Canadian Youth
—Jennifer D. Shapka, José F. Domene, and Daniel P. Keating
- Mathematics as the Critical Filter: Curricular Effects on Gendered Career Choices
—Xin Ma and Willis Johnson
II. Psychological Processes and Gendered Participation in Math, Science and Technology-Based Careers
- What Motivates Females and Males to Pursue Sex-Stereotyped Careers?
—Helen M. G. Watt
- Gendered High School Course Selection as a Precursor of Gendered Careers: The Mediating Role of Self-Concept and Intrinsic Value
—Gabriel Nagy, Jessica Garrett, Ulrich Trautwein, Kai S. Cortina, and Jacquelynne S. Eccles
- Testing for Time-Invariant and Time-Varying Predictors of Self-Perceived Ability in Math, Language Arts, and Science: A Look at the Gender Factor
—Barbara M. Byrne
- A Sociomotivational Analysis of Gender Effects on Persistence in Science and Technology: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study
—Simon Larose, Catherine F. Ratelle, Frédéric Guay, Caroline Senécal, Marylou Harvey and Evelyne Drouin
III. The Importance of Family Considerations, Family, and Biology in Gendered Career Choices
- Is the Desire for a Family-Flexible Job Keeping Young Women Out of Male-Dominated Occupations?
—Pamela M. Frome, Corinne J. Alfeld, Jacquelynne S. Eccles, and Bonnie L. Barber
- Gender-Typed Occupational Choices: The Long-Term Impact of Parents' Beliefs and Expectations
—Christina S. Chhin, Martha M. Bleeker, and Janis E. Jacobs
- Biological Contributors to Gendered Occupational Outcome: Prenatal Androgen Effects on Predictors of Outcome
—Sheri A. Berenbaum and Kristina L. Korman Bryk
IV. Social and Institutional Constraints on Women's Career Development
- Gendered Occupational Outcomes From Multilevel Perspectives: The Case of Professional Training and Work in Turkey
Ahu Tatli, Mustafa Özbilgin, and Fatma Küskü
- Advancing Women Faculty in Science and Engineering: An Effort in Institutional Transformation
—Abigail Stewart and Danielle LaVaque-Manty
- The Continuing Technological Revolution: A Comparison of Three Regions' Strategies for Creating Women-Inclusive Workplaces
—Christina M. Vogt
About the Editors
Helen M. G. Watt, PhD, is a faculty member at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, and has previously served on the faculties of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia; University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; and Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. She has received national and international early career awards since obtaining her PhD in educational psychology and measurement from the University of Sydney in 2002. Her interests include motivation, mathematics education, gendered educational and occupational choices, motivations for teaching, and teacher self-efficacy.
Jacquelynne S. Eccles, PhD, serves as the McKeachie Collegiate Professor of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. She received her PhD from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1974 and has served on the faculties at Smith College, Northville, Massachusetts; the University of Colorado, Boulder; and the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
In 1998–1999, she was the interim chair of psychology at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. She also chaired the MacArthur Foundation Network on Successful Pathways Through Middle Childhood and was a member of the MacArthur Research Network on Successful Pathways Through Adolescence. She was Society for Research on Adolescence (SRA) program chair in 1996, has served on the SRA Council, and is now past president of the SRA. She served as program chair and president for APA Division 35 (Society for the Psychology of Women) and chair of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on After School Programs for Youth.
Her awards include the Spencer Foundation Fellowship for Outstanding Young Scholar in Educational Research, the American Psychological Society's Cattell Fellows Award for Outstanding Applied Work in Psychology, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues' Kurt Lewin Award for outstanding research, the Thorndike Life Time Achievement Award from Division 15 of APA, the Hill Award for Life Time Achievement from the Society of Research on Adolescence, the Mentor Award from Division 7 of APA, the Wei Lun Lectureship Award from the Chinese University of Hong Kong, and an Honorary Doctorate from the Catholic University of Leuvan, Belgium.
She is a fellow of the APA, the American Psychological Society, the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, and the National Academy of Education. She has conducted research on topics ranging from gender-role socialization and classroom influences on motivation to social development in the family, school, peer, and wider cultural contexts. Much of this work focuses on the socialization of self-beliefs and the impact of self-beliefs on many other aspects of social development. Her most recent work focuses on (a) ethnicity as a part of the self and as a social category influencing experiences and (b) the relation of self-beliefs and identity to the transition from mid to late adolescence and then into adulthood.