The etiology of drug use represents a complex interplay of personality, genetic, environmental, and cultural influences on behavior that are difficult to dissect or treat as independent forces. Thus, research in this field has produced a host of differing theories and models to describe the factors influencing drug use. The resultant literature is impressive, yet overwhelming and often contradictory.

The Handbook of Drug Use Etiology: Theory, Methods, and Empirical Findings is the first volume to cover this dynamic field comprehensively. A roster of premiere researchers present differing theoretical perspectives and a mix of viewpoints on complex issues ranging from causation to consequences and including a rich discussion of prevention practices and how they influence policy.

The editor and contributors show the origins of the field of drug use etiology in clinical work with addicts, detail the history of the field and the numerous forces that have helped to shape its development, and examine the interaction of epidemiology and etiology. The contributors address not only the traditional factors that contribute to the prevention and cessation of drug use, such as peer pressure, community, and parenting, but also important emerging areas of study, such as genetics, race, and age. They analyze the ways in which drug use etiology links with other areas of behavioral science, and they present the implications the science holds for policy and practice.

In keeping with recent technical innovations, several chapters examine statistical modeling that can blend diverse theoretical views into a coherent explanation of drug etiology. The resulting volume is an essential resource for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers who grapple with this difficult and persisting social issue.

Table of Contents




—Richard R. Clayton

I. Creating a Road Map for Drug Use Etiology Research

  1. The Epidemiology of Drug Abuse: How the National Institute on Drug Abuse Stimulates Research
    —Yonette F. Thomas and Kevin Conway
  2. Multiple Paths to Partial Truths: A History of Drug Use Etiology
    —Nancy D. Campbell
  3. Touchstone Issues for Theories of Substance Abuse–Dependence Etiology
    —Meyer D. Glantz

II. Epidemiology and Theory

  1. The Epidemiology of Adolescent Substance Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Developmental Perspective
    —Kenneth W. Griffin
  2. Social–Cognitive Models of Drug Use Etiology
    —Lawrence M. Scheier
  3. Epidemiology and Etiology Hand in Hand
    —James C. (Jim) Anthony

III. Cognitive and Affective Influences

  1. Temperament, Self-Control, and Adolescent Substance Use: A Two-Factor Model of Etiological Processes
    —Thomas A. Wills and Michael G. Ainette
  2. Explicit Outcome Expectancies and Substance Use: Current Research and Future Directions
    —Amee B. Patel and Kim Fromme
  3. Associative Memory in Appetitive Behavior: Framework and Relevance to Epidemiology and Prevention
    —Alan W. Stacy, Susan L. Ames, Reinout W. Wiers, and Marvin D. Krank
  4. Affective Influences in Drug Use Etiology
    —Jon D. Kassel, Andrea M. Hussong, Margaret C. Wardle, Jennifer C. Veilleux, Adrienne Heinz, Justin E. Greenstein, and Daniel P. Evatt

IV. Use, Abuse, and Liability

  1. Neurodevelopmental Liability for Adolescent Substance Use Disorders
    —Dawn L. Thatcher and Duncan B. Clark
  2. How Can Etiological Research Inform the Distinction Between Normal Drinking and Disordered Drinking?
    —Kenneth J. Sher, Scott T. Wolf, and Julia A. Martinez
  3. Genetic and Environmental Factors in Substance Use, Abuse, and Dependence
    —Deborah S. Hasin and Hila Katz
  4. Age at Drinking Onset and Alcohol Use Disorders: Alcohol Dependence and Abuse
    —Ralph W. Hingson, Timothy Heeren, and Michael R. Winter

V. Race, Ethnicity, and Culture

  1. An Exploration of Ethnicity and Race in the Etiology of Substance Use: A Health Disparities Approach
    —Flavio F. Marsiglia and Scott J. Smith
  2. Cultural Factors in Drug Use Etiology: Concepts, Methods, and Recent Findings
    —Felipe González Castro and Tanya Nieri
  3. Drug Abuse Research: Addressing the Needs of Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations
    —Lula A. Beatty
  4. Racial Discrimination and Substance Abuse: Risk and Protective Factors in African American Adolescents
    —Frederick X. Gibbons, Elizabeth A. Pomery, and Meg Gerrard

VI. Peer and Family Influences

  1. Family Processes in Drug Use Etiology
    —Wendy Kliewer
  2. Peer Influences on Substance Use During Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood
    —Robert J. Pandina, Valerie L. Johnson, and Helene Raskin White
  3. The Influence of Peers on Substance Use
    —Judy A. Andrews and Hyman Hops

VII. Environmental Influences (School, Neighborhood, Census)

  1. Neighborhood Influences on Substance Use Etiology: Is Where You Live Important?
    —Margo Gardner, R. Gabriela Barajas, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
  2. The School Context of Adolescent Substance Use
    —Susan T. Ennett and Susan Haws
  3. The Association Between Neighborhoods and Illicit Drug Use Among Adults: Evidence From a Chicago Household Survey
    —Michael Fendrich, Adam M. Lippert, Timothy P. Johnson, and Michael J. Brondino
  4. Youth Substance Use and the Media
    —Leslie B. Snyder and P. Gayle Nadorff
  5. Environmental Approaches to Preventing Drinking and Drinking Problems Among Youth
    —Joel W. Grube

VIII. Statistical Models of Drug Use Etiology

  1. The Role of Latent Class and Mixture Models in Substance Use Theory
    —Brian P. Flaherty
  2. A Latent Variable Framework for Modeling Drug Use Etiology
    —Terry E. Duncan and Susan C. Duncan
  3. Structural Equation Modeling and Drug Abuse Etiology: A Historical Perspective
    —Adi Jaffe and Peter M. Bentler

IX. Factors Involved in Cessation

  1. Maturing Out of Substance Use: The Other Side of Etiology
    —Kimberly A. Jochman and Kim Fromme

X. Creating a Bridge Between Etiology and Prevention: Policy and Practice Implications

  1. Translating Research Into Practice and Practice Into Research for Drug Use Prevention
    —Mary Ann Pentz
  2. Operating Characteristics of Prevention Programs: Connections to Drug Use Etiology
    —William B. Hansen, James Derzon, Linda Dusenbury, Dana Bishop, Karren Campbell, and Aaron Alford
  3. Cognitive Misperceptions and Drug Misuse
    —Steven Sussman
  4. Advances in the Science and Practice of Prevention: Targeting Individual-Level Etiologic Factors and the Challenge of Going to Scale
    —Gilbert J. Botvin and Kenneth W. Griffin

Concluding Remarks: Mushing Along in the Frozen Tundra Without a Map
—Lawrence M. Scheier


About the Editor

Editor Bio

Lawrence M. Scheier, PhD, is president of LARS Research Institute, Inc., a Nevada-based, not-for-profit company offering a full line of research services encompassing health promotion, program evaluation, program development, and behavioral science technology transfer. He is also adjunct professor of psychiatry in the School of Medicine at Washington University St. Louis and voluntary associate professor at the Weill Medical College, Cornell University, affiliated with the Department of Public Health, Division of Prevention and Health Behavior, Institute for Prevention Research.

Dr. Scheier received a BA in psychology from Duke University in 1978, an MA in psychology from New York University in 1983, and a PhD in educational psychology and technology from the University of Southern California in 1988. He is a developmental psychologist whose research emphasizes the causes and consequences of drug use and evaluation of programs that promote positive youth adaptation. His specific interests include the role of social cognition in health behaviors, identity formation, self-concept, and risk and protective factors that nurture developmental change.

For the past 20 years he has examined the efficacy of several school- and community-based drug prevention programs. He uses multivariate and causal modeling strategies with longitudinal data to examine factors that influence growth and change in normal development as well as investigating programmatic change through drug abuse prevention programs. He has received funding from various federal agencies and engaged the private business sector in research on youth health.

He resides in Las Vegas, Nevada, where he pursues an active lifestyle and raises his two teenage daughters.

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