A Bioecological Model of Mass Trauma — Individual, Community, and Societal Effects

CE Credits
Exam Items
This article reports a review of a response to trauma using the bioecological model, or a systems approach.          
Learning Objectives
  • Identify the different levels of the Bioecological Model.

  • Describe how the areas of trauma discussed in the article relate to the Bioecological Model.

  • Critically evaluate the literature discussed and explain how the findings relate to the work of Counseling Psychologists.


Mary Ann Hoffman, PhD, is a professor and the program co-director in the Counseling Psychology Program at the University of Maryland.

Theresa Kruczek, PhD, is an associate professor of psychology-counseling in the Department of Counseling Psychology and Guidance Services at Ball State University.


Division 17This Continuing Education program is in partnership with the Division 17 (Society of Counseling Psychology).

$40.00 for Non-members
$30.00 for Members/Affiliates
Enrollment Limit