Council of Representatives: Feb. 24-26, 2012

Approved Minutes

I. MINUTES OF MEETING

A. (1) Council voted to approve the minutes of the Aug. 3 & 5, 2011, Council of Representatives Meeting.

II. ELECTIONS, AWARDS, MEMBERSHIP AND HUMAN RESOURCES

A. (2) Council voted to reject the following motion:

That Council approves and forwards to the membership for a vote in Nov. 2012 the following amendment to Article II, Section 12, of the APA Bylaws to become effective with the 2014 dues cycle (bracketed material to be deleted):

International Affiliates shall be psychologists who reside in countries other than the United states[ or Canada].  An individual desiring affiliation with the Association must, at the time of application, be a member of the psychological association of the country in which the applicant resides or, if no such association exists, shall present evidence of appropriate qualifications. International psychologists who meet the requirements for membership may apply in the usual manner if they so desire.

Contingent on the membership approving the above Bylaws change, the following changes to Association Rule 210-6.1 would become effective with the 2014 dues cycle (bracketed material to be deleted):

[210-6.    CANADIAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

210-6.1    A Fellow, Member, or Associate member residing in Canada, who also belongs to the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) and pays full dues to that Association, is eligible for a reduction of 50% in his or her dues payable to the American Psychological Association.  Conversely, a Fellow, Member, or Associate member who resides in the United States and also belongs to the Canadian Psychological Association and who pays full dues to APA is eligible for a 50% reduction in dues payable to CPA.]

Note: Subsequent sections will be renumbered.

B. (3) Council voted to approve the elimination of the APA practice of invoicing members for back-year dues on the annual dues invoice.

C. (4) Council voted to approve forwarding to the membership for a vote the following amendments to the Bylaws (bracketed material to be deleted; underlined material to be added):

APA BYLAWS

ARTICLE VIII: OFFICERS

6. The Past President shall be the most recently retired President and shall chair the Election Committee. [The Past President] A member who has served as President shall not be eligible to appear as a candidate on the President-elect election ballot [.] nor serve as President-elect for a period of ten years beginning immediately after the Past Presidential year.

Council voted to approve sending pro and con statements with the Bylaw amendment ballot.

D. (30) Council received as information the report of the summer 2011 survey of members automatically resigned from the Association for non-payment of dues.

E. (41) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Collecting Data and Developing Interim Procedures Targeting the Early Career Psychologist.”

F. (42) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Engaging New Talent in APA Governance.”

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

A. (31) Council received an item providing background information regarding diversity training at Council. The Disabilities Issues Office coordinated the 2012 training on Disability conducted by Linda R. Mona, PhD, and Julie Williams, PsyD. The training was held at the Feb. 2012 Council meeting and will take place at the March 2012 Consolidated Meetings.

B. (43) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Proposed Resolution on the Interrogations of Criminal Suspects.”

V. DIVISIONS AND STATE AND PROVINCIAL ASSOCIATIONS

No items.

VI. ORGANIZATION OF THE APA

A. (5) Council voted to receive the Report of the Good Governance Project (GGP) Team and request that the GGP move forward with the next phase of the project by bringing specific proposals back to Council for a vote at its Aug. 2012 meeting. The proposals are to be based on the report findings and the priorities identified by Council at its Feb. 2012 meeting.

B. (6) The item “Seating the Four National Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations on Council” was withdrawn from the agenda. Jennifer F. Kelly, PhD, provided Council with an update on the status of the item.

VII. PUBLICATIONS AND COMMUNICATIONS

A. (7) Council voted to approve the APAGS proposal to develop and launch a journal in the area of translational science to be published by APA through the Educational Publishing Foundation (EPF) imprint. Council requested that when the journal becomes profitable that all revenues from the journal be included in the APAGS budget

B. (8) Council voted to approve Division 54’s journal proposal to develop and launch a journal in the area of pediatric psychology to be published by APA through the EPF imprint.

C. (32) Council received an update on Publications and Communications (P&C) Board 2011 activities. The P&C Board met twice in 2011, May 20-22 and Nov. 4-6. The P&C Board reported that sales of the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual totaled approximately $8 million. The Reference division of APA Books released the second and third multi-volume reference sets in the new APA Handbooks in Psychology™ series, the two-volume APA Handbook of Ethics in Psychology (Samuel J. Knapp, Editor-in-Chief) and the three-volume APA Educational Psychology Handbook. APA Books released 48 new titles, 12 new titles to the APA Psychotherapy Video Series, and 13 new Magination Press titles. APA Books also added four new volumes to the Theories of Psychotherapy series. Rehabilitating Sexual Offenders: A Strength-Based Approach by William L. Marshall, Liam E. Marshall, Geris Serran, and Matt O’Brien won the Society for Sex Therapy and Research’s 2012 Health Professional Book Award. APA Books released 20 eBooks to Kindle, expanding delivery of direct-to-consumer electronic content. APA Books Subsidiary Rights Office negotiated 88 licenses for the translation of APA Books into Arabic, Complex and Simple Chinese, Danish, Dutch, Farsi, German, Icelandic, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Romanian, Spanish, Swedish, and Vietnamese. APA Journals published more than 38,500 pages in 59 journals, more than 3,300 articles in 300 journal issues, and more than 30 special issues or sections of journals. In early 2011, APA launched an APA Journals app available free of charge for the iPhone or iPad. In August 2011, at the APA Annual Convention in Washington, DC, APA released sample issues of 4 new journals to be published in 2012—Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice (official journal of APA Division 43); Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology (official journal of APA Division 47); Psychology of Popular Media Culture; and International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation (official journal of APA Division 52). The P&C Board made 5 editorial appointments in 2011 to terms beginning in 2012 as the Editor-elect year (and 2013 as the beginning of the masthead year). The following individuals were appointed to six-year terms: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Robert L. Greene, PhD; Professional Psychology: Research and Practice Ronald T. Brown, PhD, ABPP; Psychology and Aging— Ulrich Mayr, PhD; Psychology, Public Policy, and Law Michael E. Lamb, PhD; and School Psychology Quarterly— Shane R. Jimerson, PhD (Note:Dr. Jimerson will serve a 4-year term). The P&C Board opened searches for the following 5 journals: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes; Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied; Neuropsychology; Psychological Methods; and Psychology and Decision Making. PsycINFO added 176,000 new records to the overall database and expanded coverage, bringing the number of journals now covered to 2,500. At the end of 2011, the PsycINFO database contained 3,193,000 records. In September 2011, two new APA databases— PsycTESTS and PsycTHERAPY—were officially launched. On release, the PsycTESTS database contained a total of 2,261 test records, 2,018 master profiles for a test name, and 1,528 tests. By the end of 2011, those totals were 3,100, 2,800, and 2,100, respectively. PsycTHERAPY contains 300 videos of therapy demonstrations that were created in conjunction with the APA Psychotherapy Video Series, and provide the main content of the database. PsycARTICLES added six new titles and more than 5,000 articles. By the end of the year PsycBOOKS contained more than 3,000 books and more than 47,000 chapters.

VIII. CONVENTION AFFAIRS

No items.

IX. EDUCATIONAL AFFAIRS

A. (9) Council voted to approve forwarding to the membership for a vote the following amendment to Article XI of the APA Bylaws (underlined material to be added):

ARTICLE XI: Boards and Committees

The Board of Educational Affairs shall consist of not fewer than twelve Members of the Association, one of which may be an APA Teacher Affiliate member, who shall serve for terms of not less than three years each. It shall have general concern for all educational and training affairs which transcend more than one Division or group of psychologists. Members of the Board of Educational Affairs shall be selected to represent the range of interests characteristic of psychology in all its aspects.

Council also voted to approve amending Association Rule 120-1.1 as follows (underlined material to be added):

Association Rule 120-1.1 The Board of Educational Affairs shall consist of not fewer than twelve members, one of which may be an APA Teacher Affiliate member, four to be elected each year for a term of three years.  Each of three seats on BEA shall be filled by nominees from among the constituencies of Science, and Public Interest, respectively, in a manner that is consistent with APA procedures for the election of standing board members.  Nominations for slates will be solicited from the appropriate APA governance groups (BSA, CAPP/BPA, BAPPI).  These positions shall be for staggered three-year terms, with one of these three positions being filled each year.  Each year the constituency group whose seat would be vacated shall be requested to provide a pool of at least five nominees for a three-year term.  All other seats shall be filled according to Association Rule 110.15 in a manner to represent the Board of Educational Affairs’ commitment to each level of education and training in psychology, from pre-college and undergraduate through postdoctoral.  All twelve members are fully participating, voting members of the Board of Educational Affairs.

Council voted to approve sending pro and con statements with the Bylaw amendment ballot.

B. (10) Council voted to adopt as APA policy the Education and Training Guidelines: A Taxonomy for Education and Training in Professional Psychology and approve Feb. 2019 as the expiration date for the guidelines.

C. (11) Council voted to adopt as APA policy the Guidelines for Preparing High School Psychology Teachers: Course-Based and Standards-Based Approaches and approve February 2019 as the expiration date for the guidelines.

D. (12) Council voted to approve the addition of $14,400 in the 2012 Budget for one face-to-face meeting of the BEA Task Force on Psychology Major Competencies in 2012.

E. (32A) Council was informed of the following action taken by the Board at its Dec. 9-11, 2011, meeting: Due to the time sensitive nature, importance of the issues and a compelling careful analysis, the Board of Directors voted to take emergency action and on behalf of Council approve APA’s endorsement of the guidelines for higher education Assuring Quality, Accounting for Learning: Guidelines for Gathering and Reporting Evidence of Student Learning and Using It To Improve Outcomes.

X. PROFESSIONAL AFFAIRS

A. (13) Council voted to approve the addition of $15,800 in the 2012 Budget to support the work and meeting costs of the joint organizational APA/ASPPB/APAIT Task Force for the Development of Telepsychology Guidelines.

B. (14) The item “Recognition of Psychotherapy Effectiveness” was withdrawn from the agenda. Melba J. T. Vasquez, PhD, provided Council with an update on the status of the item.

C. (24) Council received an update on the business pending item “Structure and Function of an Interdisciplinary Team for Persons with Acquired Brain Injury.”

D. (25) Council received an update on the business pending item “Strategies for Education and Training of Psychologists in the Use of ICD-10-CM.”

E. (26) Council received an update on the business pending item “Implications of the Model Licensing Act for I/O Psychology.”

F. (33) Council received as information an update on the development of Clinical Treatment Guidelines by APA.

G. Katherine C. Nordal, PhD, Executive Director for Professional Practice, provided Council with an update on the APA Practice Organization.

XI. SCIENTIFIC AFFAIRS

A. (15) Council voted to adopt the revised CARE Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Animals in Research as APA policy and approve Feb. 2022 as the expiration date for the Guidelines.

B. (27) Council received an update on the business pending item “Affirming, Supporting and Disseminating Research on Global Climate Change.”

C. (33A) Council received as information a plan of action with budgetary implications for the Resolution to Increase Advocacy Resources for Psychological Science as requested by Council at its August 2011 meeting.

C. (44) Council received an update on the new-business-in-progress item “Revision of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing.”

XII. PUBLIC INTEREST

A. (16) Council voted to receive Crossroads: The Psychology of Immigration in the New Century, the report of the Presidential Task Force on Immigration.

B. (17) Council voted to receive Dual Pathways to a Better America: Preventing Discrimination and Promoting Diversity, the report of the Presidential Task Force on Reducing and Preventing Discrimination Against and Enhancing Benefits of Inclusion of People Whose Social Identities are Marginalized in U.S. Society.

C. (18) Council voted to adopt as APA the following Resolution on Combination Biomedical and Behavioral Approaches to Optimize HIV Prevention:

WHEREAS recent findings from the CAPRISA 004 trials (Karim et al. 2010) (women receiving tenofovir gel were 39% less likely to contract HIV than those receiving placebo), the Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Initiative (iPrEx) trials (Grant et al. 2010) (HIV-negative gay men given Truvada had 44% lower infection rates than men given placebo), and the HPTN 052 trials (NIAID, 2011) (HIV+ individuals initiating ART decreased transmission rates to sexual partners by 96%) clearly establish the importance of biomedical approaches to HIV prevention, they do not justify decreased focus or funding for behavioral prevention strategies; and,

WHEREAS these recent biomedical studies represent significant breakthroughs, combination approaches to prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that are comprised of both biomedical and psychosocial components work best for optimizing health outcomes (Coates et al. 2008; Piot et al. 2008); and,

WHEREAS the success of biomedical interventions is dependent on behavioral factors affecting medication adherence and treatment uptake (i.e., treatment acceptability and use) (Weiss et al. 2008); and,

WHEREAS the efficacy of the CAPRISA, iPrEX, and HTPN 052 studies were optimized by behavioral approaches (Karim et al. 2010; Grant et al. 2010; NIAID, 2011); and,

WHEREAS women in the CAPRISA study who accessed the adherence counseling program and used the gel most regularly had an HIV infection rate that was 54% lower than controls while those with low adherence had an HIV infection rate that was only 28% lower than controls (Karim et al. 2010); and,

WHEREAS treatment adherence played a central role in the iPrEX study as evidenced by the fact that 91 percent of the men assigned to the treatment group who later tested positive for HIV had no detectable levels of Truvada in their bloodstream (Grant et al. 2010); and,

WHEREAS behavioral approaches played a central role in the HTPN 052 study (NIAID, 2011) in which all participants were given HIV care that included safe sex counseling; and,

WHEREAS biomedical interventions for HIV and other STIs without combined behavioral approaches have shown suboptimal medication adherence and treatment uptake { e.g., 80 percent of women do not receive medication to prevent HIV Parent to Child transmission (Temmerman et al. 2003); 80 percent of uncircumcised Zambian males have expressed no interest in considering circumcision as an HIV risk reduction option (Weiss, 2011); only 27 percent of drug users in need of the Hepatitis B vaccine completed the required three dose regimen (McGregor et al. 2003); and only 28.2% of young women at a clinic who were offered the human papillomavirus vaccine accepted and of those who accepted only 55.7% completed all three required doses (Moore, et al. 2010)}; and,

WHEREAS medication adherence and treatment uptake of biomedical interventions can be addressed by behavioral interventions that enhance knowledge and build skills while incorporating attention to factors such as age, socioeconomic status, religious beliefs, chronic or acute health conditions and disability, developmental understanding, cognitive impairment, race, immigration history and status, language, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, family context, culture, stigma, mental health, substance abuse, attitudes, prior knowledge, etc.(Liebowitz et al., 2011; Underhill et al., 2011); and,

WHEREAS policy and recommendations have yet to be established as to whether biomedical interventions for HIV prevention will be viewed as life-long or as short-term solutions for high-risk individuals (Paltiel et al., 2009); and,

WHEREAS successful behavioral engagement in biomedical prevention models may be out of reach for certain populations (e.g., human trafficking victims, sex workers, people living in poverty, children, etc.) necessitating the development of concurrent models that can be accessed by multiple at-risk populations (Bowleg, Neilands & Choi, 2008); and,

THEREFORE behavioral research is needed to optimize medication adherence and treatment uptake, to document real-world decision making processes associated with biomedical interventions, and to better understand the possible unintended and/or undesired consequences of biomedical interventions; and,

THEREFORE HIV/STI prevention research teams of the future must bridge biomedical and behavioral approaches and develop new combination approaches that consider biological, cognitive, attitudinal, affective, behavioral, gender, familial, developmental, cultural, educational, social, racial, linguistic, socioeconomic, religious, and environmental factors ((Fisher et al., 2010; National Institutes of Health Research Teams of the Future, 2011); and,

THEREFORE funding should be increased for HIV prevention research that incorporates mental health, substance abuse, behavior change, and adherence strategies to optimize the health outcomes of biomedical strategies with special attention paid to the development of combination prevention interventions that can be accessed by multiple at-risk populations; and,

THEREFORE Congress, the executive branch, state and local governments, and non-governmental organizations should promote public policies that increase support for multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary training, practice, and research; and

THEREFORE psychology should continue to be mobilized to conduct research on strategies for improving health outcomes based on behavioral optimization of biomedical approaches to HIV/STI prevention and to continue basic and applied research to identify and disseminate effective universal and selective prevention strategies.

REFERENCES

Albarracin, D., Gillette, J.C., Earl, A.N., Glasman,L.R., Durantini, M.R., & Ho, M-H. (2005). A test of major assumptions about behavior change: A comprehensive look at the effects of passive and active HIV-prevention interventions since the beginning of the epidemic. Psychological Bulletin, 131(6), 856-897.

Bowleg, L., Neilands, T. B., & Choi, K. (2008). Evaluating the validity and reliability of a modified schedule of sexist events: Implications for public health research on women's HIV risk behaviors. Women & Health, 47(2), 19-40).

Coates, T.J., Richter, L., & Caceres, C. (2008). Behavioural strategies to reduce HIV transmission: How to make them work better. The Lancet, 372, 669-684.

Grant, R.M., Lama, J.R., Anderson, P.L., McMahan, V., Liu, A.Y., Vargas, L., … Glidden, D.V. (2010). Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in Men who have sex with men. New England Journal of Medicine, 363, 2587-2599.

Fisher, J. D., Smith, L. R., & Lenz, E. M. (2010). Secondary prevention of HIV in the United States: Past, current, and future perspectives. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 55(Supple 2), S106-S115.

Karim, Q.A., Karim, S.S.A., Frolich, J.A., Grobler, A.C., Baxter, C., Mansor, L.E., … & Taylor, D. (2010). Effectivness and safety of tenofvir gel, an antiretroviral microbicide, for the prevention of HIV infection in women. Science, 329,1168-1174.

Liebowitz, A. A.,  Byrnes Parker, K.  & Rotheram-Borus, M. J. (2011). A US policy perspective on oral preexpsoure prophylaxis for HIB. American Journal of Public Health, 101, 982-985.

McGregor, J., Marks, P.J., Hayward, A., Bell, Y. & Slack, R.C. (2003). Factors influencing hepatitis B vaccine uptake in injecting drug users. Journal of Public Health Medicine, 25(2), 165-170.

Moore , G.R., Crosby,R.A., Yugn,A., & Chamigo, R. (2010). Low rate of free human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among young women. Sexual Health, 7(3), 287-90.

Morin, S.F., Kelly, J.A., Charlebois, E.D., Remien, R.H., Rotheram-Borus, M.J., & Cleary, P.D. (2011). Responding to the National HIV/AIDS Strategy—Setting the implementation research agenda. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 57(3), 175-180.

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease.  (2011, May 12).  Treating HIV-infected people with antiretrovirals protects partners from infection: Findings result from NIH-funded international study.  (Press Release)  Retrieved from http://www.niaid.nih.gov/news/newsreleases/2011/Pages/HPTN052.aspx

National Institutes of Health Research Teams of the Future. Retrieved March 10, 2011 from http://commonfund.nih.gov/researchteams/index.aspx.

Paltiel, A.D., Freedberg, K. A., Scot, C.A., Schackma, B. R., Losina, E., … & Walensky, R. P. (2009). HIV preexposure prophylaxis in the United States: Impact on lifetime infection risk, clinical outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. Clinical Infectious Disease, 48(6),806–815.

Piot, P., Bartos, M., Larson, H., Zewdie, D., & Mane P. (2008). Coming to terms with complexity: A call to action for HIV prevention. The Lancet, 372, 845-859.

Temmerman, M., Quaghebeur, A., Mwanyumba, F., & Mandaliya, K. (2003). Mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource poor settings: How to improve coverage? AIDS, 17, 1239-1242.

UNAIDS (2010). UNAIDS Report on the Global Epidemic 2010. Retrieved Oct. 8, 2011 from www.unaids.org/globalreport

Underhill, K., Operario, D., Skeer, M. R., Mimiaga, M. J., & Mayer, K. H. (2011). Packaging PrEP to prevent HIV: An integrated framework to plan for pre-exposure prophylaxis implementation in clinical practice. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 55(1), 8-13.

Weiss, S. (personal communication March 3, 2011) Based on 2009 qualitative study in Zambia.

Weiss, H.A., Wasserheit, J.N., Barnabas, R.V., Hayes, R.J., & Abu-Raddad, L.J. (2008). Persisting with prevention: The importance of adherence for HIV prevention. Emergent Themes in Epidemiology, 5(1), 8.

D. (28) Council received an update on the business pending item “Value Neutral Language for End-of-Life Choices.”

E. (29) Council received an update on the business pending item “Resolution on Aid in Dying.”

F. (34) Council received as information an update on APA’s Contribution to the AAAS Science and Human Rights Coalition 2012-2014 Plan of Action.

XIII. ETHNIC MINORITY AFFAIRS

No items.

XIV. INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

A. (19)  Council voted 1) approve extending the contract with the International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS) through the anticipated completion of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Disorders (ICD) in 2014 and 2) request that the performance under the contract  continues to be reviewed annually by the Board of Directors through the projected completion of the ICD revision in 2014, and funds disbursed only if APA is satisfied with the outcomes.

B. (35) Council received as information the Annual Report of APA’s Non-Governmental Organization Representation to the United Nations.

XV. CENTRAL OFFICE

A. (36) Council received as information the 2011 Report on Environmental Issues.

B. (36A) Council received as information an update on APA’s ongoing efforts to implement the petition resolution policy.

FINANCIAL AFFAIRS

A. (20) Council voted to approve the 2012 Proposed Budget with total operational revenues of $105,172,100 and operational expenses of $104,893,900 with an operating margin of $278,200.

B. (21) Based on the 2012 Budget and the 2013-2014 projections, Council voted to adopt the following Net Asset Allocation Plan including the 2012-2014 Financial Forecast:

  • Restrict capital expenditures to no more than $10M over the three year forecast period;
  • Continue to reinvest net realized gains/losses from the long-term portfolio;
  • Continue to reinvest all long-term interest/dividends into the long-term portfolio;
  • Continue to pay down the long-term debt per our current amortization schedule;
  • Continue to reflect the real estate tax abatement per 2006 Council action;
  • Consistent with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), the Association does not count any portion of estimated building equity in net assets.
  • The Association enthusiastically supports consideration of proposals (in the form of a business plan) for new revenue generating ideas.

Each year, based on actual results and an analysis of our net assets, future financial forecasts and the net asset allocation plan will be adjusted accordingly.

C. (22) In executive session, Council discussed the reports of APA employee contracts and staff compensation.

D. (37) Council received as information the 14 th Annual Real Estate Report.

E. (38) Council received as information the 10G Building Debt Update. The forward rate lock and loan extension with John Hancock will become effective in September 2012; the total interest expense savings over the life of the loan is approximately $5.5 million.

F. (39) Council received as information the 2010 IRS Forms 990 and 990-T.

G. (40) Council received as information the draft minutes of the Dec. 2 & 3, 2011, meeting of the Finance Committee.

H. Tony Habash, DSc, Chief Information Officer, and Gary R. VandenBos, PhD, APA Publisher and Executive Director of Publications and Databases, provided Council with an update on APA’s Investment Business Plan.


On Friday morning, in response to feedback received from the GGP assessment, Council participated in a new way for Council to do its work by piloting a “mega issue” discussion - a methodology designed to foster meaningful dialogue and generate specific outcomes about an overriding issue of strategic importance. Council discussed strategic questions related to the impact of technology on the discipline and APA over the course of the next 10 years. Prior to the meeting, Council received a high-level summary of information developed by senior staff that covered the major technological issues facing psychology in the areas of research, practice, teaching and public policy and members were assigned to one of the four focus areas based on their rankings.

On Sunday morning, Armand R. Cerbone, PhD, was presented with a presidential citation.